Friday, October 26, 2012


India-born biologist Kamal Bawa

India-born biologist Kamal Bawa bags world's 1st major international award

India-born biologist Kamal Bawa has bagged the world’s first international award for outstanding scientific work that promotes sustainable development globally..

Dr. Bawa, distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts in Boston, will receive the Gunnerus Sustainability Award from the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (DKNVS) at a function in Trondheim, Norway on April 17, an official announcement said..

“We are very pleased to have selected such a worthy winner of the first Gunnerus award,” said Professor Kristian Fossheim, president of DKNVS..

The Gunnerus award is the first major international prize for outstanding scientific work that promotes sustainable development globally, and will be awarded every two years starting in 2012..

Dr Bawa is most noted for his pioneering work on population biology in rainforest areas. His wide span of research includes groundbreaking biological discoveries made in Central America, Western Ghats in India and the Himalayas..

He is specially noted for the establishment, and as President, of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) in Bangalore..

Until recently, he also held Ruffolo Giorgio Fellowship in Sustainability Science and Bullard Fellowship at Harvard University..

“I am very pleased over the recognition that our work has received,” Dr Bawa said.
The award is named after DKNVS’ founder Bishop Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718—1773) and is the result of collaboration between DKNVS, Sparebank1 SMN and the society Technoport..

diamond was found

* Argyle Pink Jubilee diamond was found at Australia..

* Huge Pink diamond was found by Rio Tinto group based at Western Austaralia..

* World’s largest pink diamond weighs about 12.76 carats..

* Mr.Richard How Kim Kam has taken the responsibility of cutting the world’s largest pink diamond.Mr.Richard is working with Argyle for over 25 years..

* The pink diamond found at Australia in February 2012 will be known as Argyle Pink Jubilee..

* Argyle took around 26 years to unearth this precious diamond..

* Argyle Pink diamond is expected to be sold for over $10 million..

Stephen Hawking on "Time Travel to the Future"

"A supermassive black hole is a time machine. But of course, it's not exactly practical. It has advantages over wormholes in that it doesn't provoke paradoxes. Plus it won't destroy itself in a flash of feedback. But it's pretty dangerous. It's a long way away and it doesn't even take us very far into the future. Fortunately there is another way to travel in time. And this represents our last and best hope of building a real time machine.."

Stephen Hawking believes in time travel. But, time travel to the future. To Hawking, time flows like a river and it seems as if each of us is carried relentlessly along by time's current. But time, says Hawking, is like a river in another way: "It flows at different speeds in different places and that is the key to travelling into the future." This is an idea first suggested by Albert Einstein over 100 years ago..

"So a supermassive black hole is a time machine. But of course, it's not exactly practical. It has advantages over wormholes in that it doesn't provoke paradoxes. Plus it won't destroy itself in a flash of feedback. But it's pretty dangerous. It's a long way away and it doesn't even take us very far into the future. Fortunately there is another way to travel in time. And this represents our last and best hope of building a real time machine..

Stephen Hawking thinks four of the world's physicists are wrong believing that time travel is impossible: Hawking sides with Sir Arthur Clarke, author of Space Odyssey 2001 who famously stated that "when a distinguished scientist states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong". And a lot of distinguished scientists believe that just "Time travel is absolutely impossible.."

discovered a new species of sea snake in the Gulf of Carpenteria,

Scientists have discovered a new species of sea snake in the Gulf of Carpenteria, northern Australia, which is unique in having raised scales. The finding published in Zootaxa today by Associate Professor Bryan Fry from The University of ueensland's (UQ) School of Biological Sciences and colleagues from The University of Adelaide, will provide important clues about evolution.

Associate Professor Fry said that Hydrophis donaldii had evaded earlier discovery as it prefers estuarine habitats that are poorly surveyed and not targeted by commercial fisheries. “Weipa really is one of the last sea snake ‘Serengetis'. We can see over 200 sea snakes in a single night's hunting, whereas sea snake populations have really crashed elsewhere through over-fishing removing their prey and also the snakes drowning in trawling nets,” Associate Professor Fry said.

Associate Professor Fry said the findings extend beyond simply discovering a rare animal. “All venomous animals are bio-resources and have provided sources of many life-saving medications, such as treatments for high-blood pressure and diabetes.

“This reinforces why we need to conserve all of nature as the next billion dollar wonder-drug may come from as unlikely a source as sea snake venom.”
The snake has been given the scientific name Hydrophis donaldii to honour Associate Professor Fry's long-time boat captain David Donald.

“Quite simply we would not have found this snake without Dave's unique knowledge of the area. I told him we wanted to survey as many distinct types of habitat as possible and heguided us to the perfect spots,” Associate Professor Fry said.
The snake has been given the common-name ‘rough-scaled sea snake' to reflect the unique scalation.

“We don't know why it has been evolutionarily selected to have such unique scalation, but we will next study its ecology to learn more about it.”

India's Diamond Mining History

India's Diamond Mining History

Historians estimate that diamond (vajra, Sanskrit for "adamantine") were discovered in India during the 4th century B.C., and India was one of the first countries to mine the gem. India's diamonds were prized for their size and beauty for hundreds of years, but the term "Indian diamonds" was used generically to describe any stone that was mined in numerous South/Southeast Asian locations that included Borneo (Landak), Golconda, Hindostan, and Raolconda. The majority of Asia's diamond deposits were alluvial as opposed to kimberlite.

India's most prized diamonds were known as the "diamonds of Golconda," and some of the most famous Golconda stones include the Hope Diamond, Koh-i-Noor Diamond, Darya-i-Nur, Orlov Diamond, and Sanc Diamond. The Darya-i-Nur (Sea of Light) was a rare blue-diamond that weighed 186 carats, which was owned by the last Great Mughal Emperor of Persia, Aurangzeb, until it was plundered from his heirs during the 'sack of Delhi' in 1739.

India Diamond Mining History

India's Geology

Golconda (aka Golkunda) was a region located between the lower reaches of the Godavari, Wainganga, Wardha and Krishna-Venva rivers, in the present-day states of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, central India (map: above, right). Today, the exact source of the so-called "lost mines of Golconda" are unknown, and India's only remaining diamond source is the Majhgawan pipe (kimberlite pipe) near Panna (see map below, under: "Mining in India Today").
The Golconda diamonds originating on the Indian subcontinent were created from the enormous forces generated by plate tectonics, when the Tethys Oceanic Crust collided with, and was subducted under the Asian Continental plate. Although these massive continental plates collided at the incredibly slow rate of 10 centimetres per year; over 100s of millions of years, this was enough force to create the Himalayan Mountain range, and to cause the necessary volcanic activity to create diamondiferous intrusive, and extrusive igneous rock known as kimberlite.
Millions of years of erosion caused by rainfall and snow-melt unearthed the diamonds from their kimberlite tomb, washing them downstream to their final resting place within the shallow alluvial river gravels of India's Golconda region.

Darya-i-Nur Sea of Light Diamond
Darya-i-Nur "Sea of Light" (photo: public domain)
  Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh

In the ancient treatise on gemology known as Utpalaparimalä, the characteristics of an ideal diamond as described as having purity (without stain), lightness, six-pointedness, and being a well formed octahedron with 8 facets and pronounced sharp edges [8].
According to ancient Indian texts, there were eight principle "find-spots" for diamonds, each being identified with a distinct diamond color [10]. The diamonds found along the banks of theVena (Wainganga) were considered "pure" (colorless), from the Himalayan region (copper-colored); from Kalinga (brilliant gold); from Kosala (tinged with Sirisa-blossom - plantain); fromMatanga (the color of wheat-blossom); from Pundra (grey to dark-blue); from Saurastra (tinged with copper-red); and those found in Supara (sable colored).
Diamonds are inextricably woven into the cultural fabric and mysticism of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Tibetan Lamaism. The 'Dorjes' is an ancient Buddhist talisman shaped like a pyramidal, four-faceted diamond [2]. According to ancient Buddhist legend, the Dorjes represents Mount Meru, a sacred mountain which is situated at the 'center of the universe.'

The 'Valley of Diamonds'

During the 14th through 18th centuries, many young explorers and adventurers were drawn to India and the Far East, by tales of riches beyond one's wildest dreams, and the legend of Sinbad's "Valley of Diamonds." The tales of Sinbad the Sailor and the "Arabian Nights" were derived from an 8th century Persian (Sassanid) book called the Hazar Afsanah, or the "Thousand Myths."
In the "Second Voyage of Sinbad," the sailor from Basrah (Baghdad) was transported by a giant bird (the "roc"), to a land where the floor of the valley was "carpeted with diamonds." In the tale, merchants harvested the diamonds by throwing chunks of meat onto the valley floor where the giant birds would carry them back to their nests, ladened with diamonds. Sinbad strapped one of the pieces of meat to his back, and returned to Baghdad with a fortune in diamonds.

Goa's Diamond Trade Route

During the latter half of the 14th century, most of the diamonds entering Europe originated in India. The Golconda diamond trade route extended from India to Bruges, Paris, and eventually to the diamond Bourses of Antwerp, Belgium. Up until the late 1400s, the only route from India to Europe was over land through Persia, transiting the ancient "Silk Road" caravan routes. This lengthy, and dangerous journey made diamond expeditions a costly affair, and many of the diamonds would fall into Persian hands as a "tariff" for crossing their territory.
Desperate to find an alternative route to India and the Far East; Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias discovered the 'Cape of Good Hope' on Africa's southern most tip in 1488. This led to fellow Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama's discovery of a sea route to India in 1498, by sailing around the Cape. This new, and easier sea-route soon led to European dominance of the Indian diamond trade.

IPortuguese Church in Old Goa
Portuguese Church in Old Goa (Photo: Public Domain)
  Goa India Map

Along India's Malabar Coast, the state of "Goa" grew into a Portuguese trading center, and a diamond-trading route was established from Goa to Lisbon, Portugal and on to Antwerp. In 1510, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (Old Goa), after Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur kings. The city of "Vasco," named after Vasco-da-Gama, remains Goa's largest city.

Jean Baptiste Tavernier & The Six Voyages

In explorer/court-jeweller Jean Baptiste Tavernier's book Les Six Voyages (The Six Voyages), written in 1679, Tavernier documented his extensive travels throughout India and the Far-East, helping to expand European trade in gems, jewellery, and other valuable commodities. During his travels, Tavernier meticulously illustrated many notable cut diamonds from Indian, such as the "Great Mogul Diamond" (illustration #1: above, right) and the "Great Table Diamond" (illustration #3: above, center)
India and Landak were the only major producers of diamonds until their discovery in Brazil in 1725, and South Africa, in 1866.

Mining in India Today

India is no longer a source for rough diamonds, as most all of India's diamond mines were depleted centuries ago, although there is one active diamond mine at Panna, in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh (below, right). The state-owned Panna mine is run by the National Mineral Development Corporation.

Madhya Pradesh India Map
  Khajuraho Temple near Panna
Khajuraho Temple near Panna (Photo: Public Domain)

DeBeers India is also currently prospecting in the Madhya Pradesh region, as well as in the sothern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The DeBeers India mining operation will be a joint venture with Hindustan Diamond, be based in Mumbai.

The Descriptive Term 'Golconda Diamond'

The term "Golconda diamond" is still used (or misused) today as an indicator of very high-quality diamonds. To justify the "Golconda" name, diamonds must have a level of transparency and quality found only in rare, chemically/optically pure type-IIa natural diamonds. The term "Golconda" is also used as a generic term to describe higher quality diamonds with an antique cut.

Salient features of National Food Security Bill, 2011

The Food security bill passed by the government will give legal entitlement of cheaper food grains to about 63.5% of Indian population. This ideally should manifest in growth of Indian human capital, productive work force and skilled labor and long term growth of the economy. These people will work more efficiently, spend more and thus will domestically drive the Indian economy. But let me take you back six years. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was precisely meant to do so. NREGA was introduced with an aim to improve the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled workers. But did it do so? It was instead marred by corruption and middlemen taking advantage of office to deny legally entitled minimum wage. A business standard report mentioned the issuance of fake job cards, fake entries and threatening of workers to keep their mouth shut. Without addressing the learning from the mistakes done in the implementation of NREGA, the UPA II government primarily controlled by the congress party has passed the Food security bill. What is the guarantee that the legal entitlement to the poor will be adhered to?

Another serious concern is the huge amounts of money associated with the project. Food minister K V Thomas had said that the total financial liability to implement the law would be Rs 3.5 lakh crore, as funds would be required to raise agriculture production, create storage space and publicity among others. Each stage presents an opportunity for making easy money and there are no checks and provisions to prevent it. As a tax payer I would want my money to be utilized in an efficient manner and not for filling the pockets of babus. Although the need for food security in India is very high, next to health care, the manner in which it has been dealt shows lack of concern and callousness.

*Salient features of National Food Security Bill, 2011*
National Food Security Bill,2011 has been tabled   in Parliament  by Shri L
K. V. Thomas, Minister for Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution
on 19.12.2011. The mandate of the Bill is to provide  for food  and
nutritional security  in human life cycle approach, by ensuring  access to
adequate quantity of quality food at affordable  prices to people to live a
life with dignity  and for matters  connected  therewith. The Salient
features of the Bill is as follows.

1.       The Bill has  15 chapters with 52 sections.
*2.       **Important Definitions *
a.       "Destitute Person" means  men, women or  children who have no
resources, means and support required for food and nutrition enabling their
survival, to the extent that makes them vulnerable to live with or die of
b.      "Senior Citizen" means a person defined as such under clause (h) of
section 2 of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens
c.       "Social Audit"  means the process in which people collectively
monitor and evaluate the planning and implementation of a programme or
d.      "Starvation"  means prolonged involuntary deprivation of food that
threatens  survival of the person.
*3.       **Right to receive foodgrains at subsidized prices by persons
belonging to priority households and general households under TPDS *

Every person belonging  to priority households  and general households  which
will be identified  by the Govt.  shall be  entitled  to receive  every
month  under targeted Public Distribution System , seven kilograms of
foodgrains per person per month  for priority households and not less than
three kilograms of foodgrains  per person  per month for general households
at subisdised prices.  The entitlements  at subsidised prices shall extend
up to seventy-five percent of the rural population  and up to fifty percent
of the urban population. But   not less than  forty-six percent of the rural
and twenty-eight percent of the urban population shall be designated  as
priority households. *( section-3)*
*4.       **Nutritional Support to pregnant women  and lactating mothers *
Every pregnant woman and lactating mothers  shall be entitled  to meal,
free of charge, during pregnancy  and six months  after the child birth ,
through local anganwadi, so as to meet  the nutritional standards  specified
in Schedule 11. They shall aslo be entitled  maternity benefit of rupees
one thousand  per month for a period of six months in accordance with a
scheme, including cost sharing, payable in such instalments as may  be
prescribed by the Central Government. *( section-4)*
*5.       **Nutritional support to Children *
Every child up to the age of fourteen years shall  be entitled to get the
following entitlements for his nutritional needs.
a.       In case of children in the age group of six months  to six years,
age appropriate meal, free of charge , through the local anganwadi so as to
meet the nutritional standards.
b.      In the case of children in the age group of six  to fourteen  years,
one mid-day meal , free of charge , every day  except on school holidays  in
all schools  run by local bodies , Govt and Govt  aided schools, up to
class VIII, so as to meet  their  nutritional standard.
c.       Every school  and Anganwadi shall have facilities  for cooking
meals, drinking water and sanitation. But in urban areas, facilities of
centralised kitchens for cooking meals may be used as per guideline issued
by Central Govt.  *(section-5)*
*6.       **Prevention and Management of Child Malnutrition *
The State Govt.  shall, through the local Anganwadi, identify and provide
meals, free of charge, to the children who suffer from malnutrition, so as
to meet the nutritional standards specified in Schedule II*.  ( section-6)*
*7.       **Entitlements of Special Groups *
The special groups  consistsing of all destitiute persons or homeless
persons shall  have the following entitlements.
a.       All destitute persons shall be entitled  to at least one meal
every day, free of charge , in accordance with such scheme, including cost
sharing , as may be prescribed  by the Central Govt.
b.      All homeless opersons shall be entitled to affordable meals at
community kitchens in accordance with such scheme, including cost sharing ,
as may be prescribed  by the Central Govt.
c.       The persons in receipt of similar benefits under any otrher
schemes of Central Govt.  or State Govt. shall not be entitled  to get
abovementioned  benefits.
d.      The migrants and their families shall be able to claim  their
entitlements  under this Act, at the place where they currently reside. *(
section-8) *
*8.       **Emergency and disaster affected persons*
The State Govt. shall , it it is of the opinion  that an emergency or
disaster  situation exists , provide to  affected households , two meals ,
free of charge for a period  up to 3 months  for the date of disaster  in
accordance with such schemes  including cost sharing   as may be prescribed
by the Central Government.  *(section-9) *
* *
*9.       **Persons living in starvation *
a.       The State Govt. shall identify persons, households, groups or
communities living in starvation or conditions akin to starvation.
b.      All persons , households, groups or communities identified living
in starvation shall be provided  meals  two times  a day, free of charge,
in accordance with a scheme, including  cost sharing  as may be prescribed  by
Central Govt.  for six months  from the date of identification.
c.       Every State Govt.  shall prepare and notify  guidelines  for
prevention, identification  and relief  to cases of starvation.  *(
*10.   **Right to receive food security allowances in certain cases. *
In case of non-supply of  the entitled  quantities  of food grains or meals
to entitled  persons  as mentioned above, such persons shall be entitled  to
receive  such food security allowance from the concerned State Govt.  to be
paid to each persons within such time  and manner  as may be prescribed by
the Central Govt.  *(section-13)*
*11.   **Identification of Priority Households and General Households*
a.       At the all India level, the percentage coverage of overall rural
and urban population under the priority and general households, for the
purposes of providing subsidized foodgrains under TPDS shall be determined
by Central Govt.
*b.      * The State-wise  distribution  shall, from time to time, be
determined  by the Central Govt*.  ( section-14) *
*12.   **Guideline for identification of Priority households and general
a.       The Central Government may, from  time to time, prescribe  the
guidelines  for identification  of priority households , general households
and exclusion criteria , for  the purposes of their entitlement under this
Act. *( section- 15)*
b.      The list of  the identified  priority  households and general
households  shall be  placed  by the State Govt. in a public  domain and
displayed prominently.  *( section-16)*
* *
*13.   **Reforms  in Targeted PDS *
The Central Govt. and State Govt. shall  endeavour  to progressively
undertake  necessary reforms  in TPDS  as follows.
a.       Doorstep delivery  of foodgrains  to  the TPDS outlets
b.      Application of information and communication technology tools
including end-to-end computerization in order to ensure transparent
recording of transactions at all levels.
c.       Leveraging "aadhar" for unique identification, with biometric
information of entitled beneficiaries for proper targeting of benefits
under this Act.
d.      Full transparency of records.
e.      Preference to public institutions or public bodies such as
Panchayats, self help groups, cooperatives, in licensing of fair price
shops and management of fair price shops by women or their collectives.
f.        Support to local public distribution models and grain banks.
g.       Introducing schemes such as cash transfers, food coupons or other
schemes to the targeted beneficiaries in lieu of their food entitlements.  *
*14.   **Women of eighteen years of age or above to be head of household
for purpose of issue of ration card. *
a.       The eldest woman who is not less than eighteen years of age shall
be head of the household for the purpose of issue of ration card.
*b.      *Where a household  does not have woman  or a woman of  eighteen
years of age or above, but has a female member  below the age of eighteen
years , the eldest male member of the household shall be head of the
household  for the purpose of issue of ration card and the female member on
attaining age of eighteen years  shall become the head of the household  for
such card  in place of  such male  member*.  ( section-19) *
*15.   **Grievance Redressal Mechanism *
a.       The Central Govt. and the State Govt. shall put in place an
internal grievance redressal mechanism like call centres, help lines,
designation of nodal officers, or other mechanism may be prescribed.
b.      For effective redressal of grievances of the aggrieved persons in
matters relating to distribution of entitled food-grains or meals under
PDS, MDM, ICDS, for special groups, disaster-affected persons etc., a
district grievance redressal officer shall be appointed by State Govt. for
each district to enforce these entitlements and investigate and redress
grievances.  *( section-21)*
*16.   **State Food Commission *
a.       Every State Govt. shall constitute a State Food Commission  for
the purpose of monitoring  and review  of  implementation of the Act.
b.      State Commission shall constitute of Chairman, other five members
and Member-secretary.  There shall be at least two women, one person   from
Scheduled Caste and one person from Scheduled Tribe.
c.       The  Chairperson, other Members and Member-Secretary shall be
appointed  from amongst persons  (1) who are  or  have  members of All
India services or any other Civil Services of the Union or state  or
holding a civil post  having knowledge  and  experience  in matters
relating  to  food security, policy making and administration  in the field
of agriculture, civil supplies , nutrition and health etc. , (2)  of
eminence in public  life with wide  knowledge  and experience   in
agriculture, law, human rights, social service, management, nutrition,
health, food policy or public administration, (3)  who  have a proven
record  of work relating  to  the improvement of the food and nutrition  rights
of the poor.
d.      The Chairperson  or  other persons shall hold officer  for a term
not exceeding  five years.  The age limit  is   sixty-five years*.
*17.   * *Functions of State Food Commission *
(1)    The State Commission shall undertake the  following functions.
a.       Monitor and evaluate  the implementation of  the Act
b.      Either suo moto or on receipt of complaint inquire  into violations
of entitlements provided  in different sections of the Act.
c.       Issue guidelines to the State Govt.  in consonance with the
guidelines  of the National Commission.
d.      Give advice  to the State Govt., their agencies, autonomous bodies
as well as non-government organizations  involved in delivery of relevant
services  for the effective implementation of food and nutrition related
e.      Hear appeals against orders of the District Grievance Redressal
f.        Hear complaints transferred  to it by the District Grievance
Redressal Officer
g.       Prepare Annual Report
(2)    The State Govt. has the power to remove the Chairperson and Members
of the Commission from the office  on the ground of  inefficiency,
insolvency etc.
(3)    The appointment procedure  will be decided as may be prescribed by
the Central Govt* ( section-22)*
18.   *Constitution of National Food Commission*
(1)    The Central Govt. shall  constitute  National Food Commission  to
perform the functions  such as  follows
* *
a.       Monitor and evaluate  the implementation of  the Act
b.      Either suo moto or on receipt of complaint inquire  into violations
of entitlements provided  in different sections of the Act.
c.       Give advice  to the Central  Govt., in synergizing the schemes and
framing new schemes for the entitlements provided under the Act.
d.      Recommend  to the Central Govt.  and the State Govt. , steps  for
effective implementation  of food and nutrition related schemes  and to
enable persons to fylly access  their entitlements  under the Act.
e.      Issue requisite guidelines  for training, capacity building  and
performance  management  of all persons  charged  with  the duty  of
the  implementation
of the schemes.
f.        Consider the reports  and recommendations of the  State
Commission for  inclusion  in its annual report.
g.       Hear appeals  against  the orders of the State Commission.
h.      Prepare Annual Report  on implementation of the Act.
(2)    The National Commission shall consist of  one Chairperson, five
members, and one Member-secretary.
(3)    There shall be at least  two women,  one person from  SC  and one
person from ST in the Commission.
(4)    The tenure of the Commission is five years and age limit is 65
(5)    The appointment procedure  will be decided as may be prescribed by
the Central Govt.
(6)    The Central Govt. has power to remove  the Commissioners  from the
office on the ground of  inefficiency, insolvency, convicted of an offence
etc. *(section-26)*
*19.   **Powers relating to enquiries *
The National Commission as well as State Commission, while enquiring into
any matter  have all the powers of Civil Court  while trying a suit  under
Civil Procedure Code, 1908. * (section-27)*
*20.   *  *Provision for fund  by Central Govt. to State Govt.  in certain
cases *
In case  of  short  supply  of food grains  from the central pool to a
state, the Central  Govt.  shall  provide  funds to the extent of  short
supply  to the State Govt.  for meeting  obligations  under different
provisions of the Act  as may be prescribed  by the Central Govt. *(section-31)
*21.   **Penalties *
Any public  servant  or authority  found guilty by  the State Commission or
the National Commission at the time  of deciding  any  complaint or appeal,
of failing  to provide  the relief  recommended  by the District Grievance
Redressal  Officer, without reasonable cause  or willfully ignoring  such
recommendation  shall be liable  to penalty  not exceeding  five thousand
rupees. *(section-41)*
*22.   **Act  to have overriding effect*
The provisions of this Act  or the schemes made  thereunder  shall have
effect  notwithstanding  anything  inconsistent  contained  in any other law
for the time being  in force  or  in any instrument  having effect  by
virtue of such law.  *(section-44) *
* *
*23.   * *Obligation of Central Govt.  for food security *
a.       The Central Govt.  shall, for ensuring the regular supply  of
foodgrains  to the persons belonging to priority households and general
households , allocate  from the central pool  the required  quantity  of
foodgrains  to the state Govt.  under Targeted PDS. It will also provide
foodgrains  in respect of all entitlements under provisions of the Act.
b.      The Central Govt. shall create and maintain required modern and
scientific facilities at various level. *( Section-30)*

*24.   **Obligation of State Govt.  for food security*
a.       The  State Govt*. *shall be responsible  for implementation and
monitoring of the scheme  of various ministries and Departments  of the
Central Govt. in accordance with  the guidelines issued by Central Govt.
for each scheme and their schemes for ensuring food security  to the
targeted  beneficiaries  in  the state.
b.      Under TPDS, the State Govt. shall  take delivery of food grain from
designated  depot of the Central Govt. in the state, ensure actual delivery
or supply of food grains to the entitled  beneficiaries.
c.       The State Govt.  shall prepare and notify  guidelines for
prevention, identification, and relief to cases  of starvation.
d.      In case of non-supply of entitled quantities of food grain or meals
to entitled  persons,  the State Govt. shall be responsible  for payment of
food security allowance.  *(section-32) *
25.   *Obligation of  Local Authorities *
The Local authorities  shall be responsible  for proper implementation
of  various
provisions of the Act  as assigned  to them  by the  State Govt. *
*26.   **Transparency and accountability *
·         All targeted Public Distribution System related records  shall be
placed  in public domain  and kept  open  for public inspection.
·         Every local authority or  body or any other authority   as
authorized  by State Govt. shall  conduct periodic social audit  on TPDS
and other welfare schemes, publicize its report and take necessary action   as
prescribed  by State Govt.
·         For ensuring transparency  and  proper functioning  of TPDS  and
accountability  of functionaries,  State Govt. shall  set up vigilance
committees  at the State, district, block and fair price shop level  consisting
of such persons  as may be prescribed  by State Govt. giving  due
representation  from the   local authorities  and  the Scheduled caste,
scheduled tribe, women, destitute etc.   *( section-35,36,37)*
*27.   **Subsidized  price for  Priority Household and General Household*
·         Subsidized  price  for priority  Household  shall be  not
exceeding  rupees 3 per kg for rice, Rs. 2/-  per kg  for wheat and Rs. 1/-
per kg  for  coarse grains.
·         Subsidized  price  for General Household  shall be  not exceeding
50 percent of the minimum  support  price  for wheat and coarse grains  and
not exceeding  50 % of derived  minimum support price for rice.  *(

*Prepared  by*
* Pradip Pradhan*

Per capita availability 445.3 442.8 436 444 438 gms/day 

19.12.2011 Cabinet clears food bill 

Salient Features 

1 Legal entitlement of cheaper food to 63.5% of country 

Rural - 75% of ppl will be covered ; atleast 46% under priority 

Urbal - 50% of ppl will be covered; atleast 28% under priority 

2 Benefit to Common Man 

Rice - Rs. 3/kg >> food subsidy increases by 27663 crores to 95000 crores 

wheat - Rs. 2/kg 

coarse grain - Rs. 1/kg 

7 kg. of each to per person per month 

3 Benefit to woman 

Maternity benefit @ Rs. 1000 for six months >> liability 14512 cr p.a. 

Ration Card to be issued to eldest female in household 

4 Non compliance 

a) 3 tier grievance commission 

level 1 - District grievance Redressal Officer 

level 2- State Food Commission 

level 3 - National Food Commission

b)Penalty of Rs. 5000 on public servants for non compliance 

Total liabilty 3.5 lakh crores 

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