Tuesday, May 27, 2014

CSAT 2013 Solved Paper (paper-II)

CSAT 2013 Solved Paper (paper-II)

1. In a rare coin collection, there is one gold coin for every three non-gold coins. 10 more gold coins are added to the collection and the ratio of gold coins to non-gold coins would be 1:2. Based on the information, the total number of coins in the collection now becomes
(a)90      (b)80     (c)60      (d)50
Solution:
Initial ratio = G:N = 1:3                   ---(1)
After adding 10 gold coins, the ratio becomes (10+G):N =  1:2     ---(2)
On solving (1) & (2), we get, G=20 and N=60.
Presently, the total number of coins in the collection = (10+G)+N= 10+20+60=90
Ans: (a)

2. A gardener has 1000 plants. He wants to plant them in such a way that the number of rows and the number of columns remains the same. What is the minimum number of plants that he needs more for this purpose?
(a)90      (b)24     (c)32      (d)34
Solution:
If the number of rows and number of columns are to be equal, then the total number of trees will be in the form of x2, which is nothing but a perfect square. As 1000 is not a perfect square, we need to check for a perfect square above and nearest to 1000.
It’s 1024, which is square of 32. So he needs to add 24 more trees to get 1024.
Ans: (b)

3. A Sum of Rs 700 has to be used to give 7 cash prizes to the student of a school for their overall academic performance. If each prize is Rs 20 less than its preceding  price, what is the least value of the price?
(a)Rs 30 (b)Rs 40 (c)Rs 60              (d)Rs 80
Solution:
Let the least value price be X. Then the next value is X+20, and the next value is X+40 and on and on up to 7 values.
It’s nothing but an arithmetic Progression with sum 700.
X + X+20 + X+40 +… X+120=700 => 7X+(20+40+…+120)=700
=> 7X+20(1+2+3+…+6)=700 => 7X+20(21)=700 => 7X=280 =>X=40
Ans: (b)

4. Out of 120 applications for a post 70 are male and 80 have a driver’s license. What is the ratio between the minimum to maximum number of males having driver’s license?
(a)1 to 2 (b) 2 to 3 (c)3 to 7(d)5 to 7
Solution:
70 male => 120-70=50 female
 For a maximum, all 70 male shall have driver’s license
For a minimum: If all 50 females posses driver’s license, then the remaining 30 licenses shall be possessed by males. So minimum male-driver’s licenses = 30
Min to max = 30 to 70 = 3 to 7
Ans: (c)

5. In a garrison, there was food for 1000 soldiers for one month. After 10 days, 1000 more soldiers joined the garrison. How long would the soldiers be able to carry on with the remaining food?
(a)25 days (b) 20 days (c) 15 days (d) 10 days
Solution:
After 10 days, the remaining food would be sufficient for the 1000 soldiers for 20 more days
=> If 1000 more soldiers are added, it shall be sufficient for only 10 days (as the no. of soldiers is doubled, the days are halved)
Ans: (d)

6. A tank-full petrol in Arun’s motor-cycle last for 10 days. If he starts using 25% more every day, how many days will the tank-full petrol last?
(a)5 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 8
Solution:
The analogy is like this: Arun has 10 lt of petrol and he uses 1 lt per each day and consumes it in 10 days. If he uses 1.25 lt every day, in how many days it will be consumed?
We considered 1.25 lt here because it’s 25% more than 1 lt.
The answer would be 10/1.25=8
Ans: (d)

7. A person can walk a certain distance and drive back in 6 hrs. He can also walk both ways in 10 hrs. How much time will he take to drive both ways?
(a)Two hours (b) Two and a half hours (c) Five and a half hours (d) Four hrs
Solution:
2-way walk = 10 hrs => 1-way walk = 5 hrs
1-way walk + 1-way Drive = 6 hrs => 1-way drive = 6-5= 1 hr
Hence, 2-way drive = 2 hrs
Ans: (a)

8. Consider the following matrix:
               
3
370
7
2
224
6
1
730
X

What is the number at X in the above matrix?
(a)5 (b) 8 (c) 9 (d) 11
Solution:
Consider 2nd element in each row. Sum up the digits of each number.
3+7+0=10
2+2+4=8
7+3+0=10
Now re draw the table like this:
3
10
7
2
8
6
1
10
X

Now each row follows this: sum of 1st and 3rd elements is equal to 2nd element.
1+X=10 => X = 9
Ans: (c)

9. Examine the following three figures in which the numbers follow a specific pattern:
84


81


88


14
12

18
9

?
11

The missing number (?) in the third figure above is
(a)7 (b) 16 (c) 21 (d) 28
Solution:
Observe the first two figures carefully:
2*(84/12)=14
2*(81/9)=18
Hence for the third figure, 2*(88/11)=X=> X=2*8 => X=16
Ans: (b)

 10. Four friends A,B,C and D distribute some money among themselves in such a manner that A gets one less than B, C gets 5 more than D and D gets 3 more than B. Who gets the smallest amount? 
(a)A (b) B (c) C (d) D
Solution:
A=B-1 => B=A+1
C=D+5
D=B+3
If we see these equations, we can find that - every one except A has got some thing more than some other (+ indicates more than). So answer must not be B,C or D. So A is the choice
Ans: (a)

11. There are five hobby clubs in a college  viz., photography,yachting,chess,electronics and gardening. The gardening group meets every second day,the electronics group meets every third day, the chess group meets every fourth day, the yachting group meets every fifth day and the photography group meets every sixth day. How many times do all the five groups meet on the same day with in 180 days? 
(a)3 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) 18
Solution:
It's a simple LCM problem. Find out LCM of 2,3,4,5 and 6.
It's 60. SO every 60th day all the five groups meet. So in a period of 180 days they meet thrice ie., on 60th day, 120th day and 180th day.
Ans: (a)

12. In a class of 45 students, a boy is ranked 20th . When two boys joined, his rank was dropped by one. What is his new rank from end? 
(a)25th  (b) 26th  (c) 27th  (d) 28th
Solution:
After two boys are added the class strength become 47.
The boy's rank is dropped by one => his rank becomes 21st
=> There are 47-21=26 below his rank
=> He is ranked 27th from end
Ans: (c)

13. A thief running at 8km/hr is chased by a policeman whose speed is 10km/hr. If the thief is 100m ahead of policeman, then the time required for the policeman to catch the thief will be? 
(a)2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 6
Solution:
If we consider the difference of speeds, policeman is at 2 km/hr leading speed and hence he can catch the thief at 100m ahead by 100m/2kmph = 100/2000 hr = 3 min
Ans: (b)

14. A train travels at a certain average speed for a distance of 63 km and then travels a distance of 72 km at an average speed of 6 km/hr more than its original speed. If it takes 3 hours to complete the total journey, what is the original speed of the train in km/hr? 
(a)24 (b) 33 (c) 42 (d) 66
Solution:
Let the original speed be ‘S’.
Total time taken = 3 hr => 63/S + 72/S+6 = 3
Let us try with answer options. As we have 63 in the numerator, we can assume that S may be a multiple of 7.  The only option available is 4. So, let us try with that.
63/42 + 72/48 = 3/2 + 3/2 = 3 => this suits
Ans: (c)

15. Four cars are hired at the rate of Rs 6 per km plus the cost of diesel at Rs 40 a litre. In this context, consider the details given in the following table:
Car
Mileage (km/l)
Hours
Total Payment (Rs)
A
8
20
2120
B
10
25
1950
C
9
24
2064
D
11
22
1812
 
Which car maintained the maximum speed?
(a) Car A (b) Car B (c) Car C (d) Car D
Solution:
Let the distances travelled by cars A,B,C and D be a,b,c and d respectively.
 Then, total payment for car A = 6a+40(a/8) = 11a=2120 => a=2120/11
It is mentioned that car A travels for 20 hr
=> The average speed of A= a/20 = 2120/11*20 = 106/11 > 9
 Equation for B: 6b+40(b/10)=1950 => b=195
=> The average speed of B= b/25 = 195/25 = 39/5=7.8
Equation for C: 6c+40(c/9)=2064 => c=9*1032/47
=> The average speed of C= c/24 = 9*43/47 < 9
Equation for D: 6d+40(d/11)=1812 => d=11*906/53
=> The average speed of D= d/22 = 453/53 < 9
All speeds except for A are less than 9 where as seed for A is greater than 9 and hence it’s the greatest value.
Ans: (a)

16. The music director of a film wants to select four persons to work on different aspects of the composition of a piece of music. Seven persons are available for this work; they are Rohit,Tanya,Shobha,Kaushal,Kunal,Mukesh and Jaswant. Rohit and Tanya will not work together. Kunal and Shobha will not work together. Mukesh and Kunal want to work together.
Which of the following is the most acceptable group of the people that can be selected by the music director? 
(a)Rohit,Shobha,Kunal and Kaushal
(b)Tanya, Kaushal,Shobha and Rohit
 (c)Tanya,Mukesh,Kunal and Jaswant
 (d)Shobha,Tanya,Rohit and Mukesh
Solution:
Let us check the answer options one by one.
Option (a) is not possible as Shobha and Kunal shall not work together
Option (b) is not possible as Rohit and Tanya shall not work together
Option (d) is not possible as Rohit and Tanya shall not work together                     
Hence we shall go with option (c)
Ans: (c)

17. Geeta is older than her cousin Meena. Meena's brother Bipin is older than Geeta. When Meena and Bipin visit Geeta they want to play chess. Meena wins the game more than Geeta. Based on the above information, four conclusions as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above? 
(a)While playing chess with Geeta and Meena, Bipin often loses
(b)Geeta is the oldest among the three
(c)Geeta hates to lose the game
(d)Meena is the youngest of the three
Solution:
Let us try to write the given conditions in the form of equations:
Geeta is older than her cousin Meena => G > M
Meena's brother Bipin is older than Geeta => B > G
From these two we can easily say that B > G > M => Bipin is eldest and Meena is youngest among the three. So we can take option (d) as right option.
Ans: (d)

18. A,B,C,D and E belong to five different cities P,Q,R,S and T (not necessarily in that order). Each one of them comes from a different city. Further it is given that:
1. B and C do not belong to Q
2. B and E do not belong to P and R
3. A and C do not belong to R,S and T
4. D and E do not belong to Q and T
Which one of the following statement is not correct?    
(a)C belongs to P
(b) D belongs to R
(c) A belongs to Q
(d) B belongs to S
Solution:
From the first two conditions it is clear that, B does not belong to P,Q and R => B belongs to either S or T
From the first and third conditions it is clear that, C does not belong to Q,R,S and T => C belongs to P
From the second and fourth conditions it is clear that, E does not belong to P,Q,R and T => E belongs to S
=> B belongs to T
=> Answer option (d) is wrong
Ans: (d)

19. Seven men A,B,C,D,E,F and G are standing in a queue in that order. Each one is wearing a cap of different colour like violet,indigo,blue,green,yellow,orange and red. D is able to see in front of him green and blue, but not violet. E can see violet and yellow but not red. G can see caps of all colours other than orange. If E is wearing an indigo coloured cap, then the colour of cap worn by F is
(a)Blue (b)Violet (c) Red (d) Orange
Solution:
Order:                   A,B,C,D,E,F, G
The point is – A person can see caps of all persons standing in front of him but can’t see his own cap and caps of persons standing behind him.
D is able to see in front of him green and blue, but not violet => The people in front of D ie., A or B or C worn green or blue and people after D and including himself ie., D or E or F or G worn violet
E can see violet and yellow but not red => From this and above statements, we can fix violet cap for D. and A/B/C worn green/blue/yellow not necessarily in that order
G can see caps of all colours other than orange => As he is the last person in the row, he can see all caps except his. So we can fix Orange cap for G
Given that E wears indigo cap.
The summary is:
Person
Cap
A/B/C
green/blue/yellow
D
violet
E
indigo
G
orange

Finally, we are left with red cap and so we can fix this to F
Ans: (c)

20. There are some balls of red,green and yellow colour lying on a table. There are as many red balls as there are yellow balls. There are twice as many yellow balls as there are green ones. The number of red balls  
(a)is equal to the sum of yellow and green balls
(b)is double the number of green balls
(c) is equal to yellow balls minus green balls
(d)cannot be ascertained
Solution:
Let us write as equations:
R=Y and Y=2G => R=2G
=> The number of red balls is equal to double the number of green balls
Ans: (b)

Directions for the following 4 items:
Read the following statements and answer the four items that follow:
Five cities P,Q,R,S and T are connected by different modes of transport as follows:
P and Q are connected by boat as well as rail.
S and R are connected by bus and boat.
Q and T are connected by air only.
P and R are connected by boat only.
T and R are connected by rail and bus.
21. Which mode of transport would help one to reach R starting from Q, but without changing the mode of transport?
(a)Boat (b)Rail (c) Bus (d) Air
Solution:
We have the following transport options:
Q to P and P to R: Here boat is a common mode of transport and this seems to be the correct answer. But let us check the other transportation.
Q to T and T to R : Here Q and T are connected by air only and T and R are connected by rail and bus To make a complete trip there is no single mode of transport.  So, this option is ruled out.
Here we have only one rout Q-P-R which has a single mode of transportation ie., Boat  
Ans: (a)

22. If a person visits each of the places starting from P and gets back to P, which of the following places must he visit twice?
(a)Q (b)R (c) S (d) T
Solution:
With the given options, we have the following two possibilities:
P -> Q -> T -> R -> S -> R -> P      
P -> R -> S -> R -> T -> Q -> P      
In both the cases, R should be visited twice. (This is because, S is connected only to R)
Ans: (b)

23. Which one of the following pairs of cities is connected by any of the routes directly without going to any other city?
(a)P and T (b)T and S (c) Q and R (d) None of these
Solution:
None of the cities in the given pairs (in options A,B and C) are directly connected.
Ans: (d)

24. Between which two cities among the pairs of cities given below are there maximum travel options available?
(a)Q and S (b)P and R (c) P and T (d) Q and R
Solution:
Q and S:
Q -> T -> R -> S : For Q to T we have air mode. For T to R we have rail/bus and for R to S, we have bus/boat => all the options available are air,rail,bus and boat. Here we have all modes of options and hence this is the correct answer.
Ans: (a)

Directions for the following 3 (three) items:
Read the following statements and answer the three items that follow:
A tennis coach is trying to put together a team of four players for the forthcoming tournament. For this 7 players are available: males A,B and C; and females W,X,Y and Z. All players have equal capability and at least two males will be there in the team. For a team of four, all players must be able to play with each other. But B cannot play with W, C cannot play with Z and W cannot play with Y.
25. If Y is selected and B is rejected, the team will consist of which one of the following groups?
(a)A,C,W and Y (b) A,C,X and Y (c) A,C,Y and Z (d) A,W,Y and Z
Solution:
If Y is selected, W shall not be selected. So options (a) and (d) are out. As C cannot play with Z, option (c) is also out.
Ans: (b)

26. If B is selected and Y is rejected, the team will consist of which one of the following groups?
(a)A,B,C and W (b) A,B,C and Z (c) A,B,C and X (d) A,W,Y and Z
Solution:
If B is selected, W shall not be selected. So options (a) and (d) are out. As C cannot play with Z, option (b) is also out.
Ans: (c)

27. If all the three males are selected, then how many combinations of four member teams are possible?
(a)1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
Solution:
If males A,B,C are selected, we need to select only one more person to make up a four member team.
As B is selected, W cannot be selected and as C is selected, Z cannot be selected. So the choice is between X and Y. Then we can have the following possibilities:
(A,B,C,X) or (A,B,C,Y) . SO we have two options of teams.
Ans: (b)

Directions for the following 3 (three) items:
Examine carefully the following statements and answer the three items that follow:
Out of four friends A,B,C and D,
A and B play football and cricket,
B and C play cricket and hockey,
A and D play basketball and football,
C and D play hockey and basketball.
28. Who does not play hockey?
(a)D (b) C (c) B (d) A
Solution:
Just check the sentences containing hockey.
B and C play cricket and hockey, C and D play hockey and basketball => B,C and D play hockey
=> A does not play hockey
Ans: (b)

29. Who plays football, basketball and hockey?
(a)D (b) C (c) B (d) A
Solution:
Just check individually (player wise).
A plays football, cricket and basketball
B plays football, cricket and hockey
C plays cricket, hockey and basketball
D plays basketball, football and hockey
Ans: (d)

30. Which game do B,C and D play?
(a)Basketball (b) Hockey (c) Cricket (d) Football
Solution:
Check these two:
B and C play cricket and hockey
C and D play hockey and basketball
=> B,C and D play hockey
Ans: (b)

31.  Consider the following statements:
(1)A primary group is relatively smaller in size.
 (2) Intimacy is an essential characteristic of a primary group.
(3) A family may be an example of a primary group
In the light of above statements, which one of the following is true?
(a)All families are primary groups
(b) All primary groups are families
(c) A group of smaller size is always a primary group
(d) Members of a primary group are known each other intimately
Solution:
Avoid sharp conclusions.
(a), (b) and (c) are sharp conclusions. It cannot be concluded either all primary groups are families or all families are primary groups. Characteristic of a Primary group is intimacy and it may not be a characteristic of a family. Similarly, a group of small size may not guarantee intimacy and hence may not be a Primary group.
Option (d) reiterates the essential characteristic of a primary group and hence is the correct option.
Ans: (d)
English Passage –1
Seven year old Jim came home from the park without his new bicycle. “An old man and a little boy borrowed it”, he explained. “They are going to bring it back at four o’clock.” His parents were upset that he has given his expensive new bicycle, but were secretly proud of his kindness and faith. Came four o’clock, no bicycle. The parents were anxious. But at 4:30, the door bell rang, and there stood a happy man and a boy, with a bicycle and a box of chocolates. Jim suddenly disappeared in to bed room, and then came running out. “All right” he said after examining the bicycle. “You can have your watch back!”
32. When Jim came home without his bicycle, his parents
 (a) were angry with him.
(b) were worried.
(c) did not feel concerned.
(d) were eager to meet the old man and the little boy.
Solution:
The given options are easy to eliminate.
When Jim came home without bicycle, his parents were not angry with him, but they are worried that he has given his expensive bicycle.  Answer option (b) is correct. Options c and d are very easy to eliminate.
Ans: (b)
33. Jim returned the watch to the old man and the little boy because
 (a) they gave him chocolates.
(b) his father was proud of him.
(c) he was satisfied with the condition of his.
(d) they were late only by 30 minutes.
Solution:
“All right” he said after examining the bicycle. “You can have your watch back!” => this is implies that he is satisfied with the condition of bicycle and returned the  watch
Ans: (c)
English Passage –2
It was already late when we set out for the next town, which according to the map was about fifteen kilometers away on the other side of the hills. There we felt that we would find a bed for the night. Darkness fell soon after we left the village but luckily we met no one as we drove swiftly along the narrow winding road that led to the hills. As we climbed higher, it became colder and rain began to fall, making it difficult at times to see the road. I asked John , my companion to drive slowly. After we had travelled for about twenty kilometers, there was still no sign of the town which was marked on the map. We were beginning to get worried. Then without warning the car stopped and we found we had run out of petrol.
34. The author asked John to drive more slowly because
 (a) the road led to the hills.
(b) John was an inexperienced driver.
(c) the road was not clearly visible.
(d) they were in wilderness.
Solution:
“As we climbed higher, it became colder and rain began to fall, making it difficult at times to see the road. I asked John , my companion to drive slowly.” => As ‘the road was not clearly visible’, he asked John to drive slowly.
Ans: (c)

35. The travelers set out for the town although it was getting dark because
 (a) they were in a hurry.
(b) the next town was a short distance away and was a hill resort.
(c) they were in wilderness.
(d) the next town was a short distance away and promised a good rest for the night.
Solution:
“There we felt that we would find a bed for the night” => This sentence is hinting at option (d)
Ans: (d)

36. The travellers were worried after twenty kilometers because
 (a) it was a lonely country side.
(b) they probably feared of having lost their way.
(c) the rain began to fall.
(d) it was getting colder as they drove.
Solution:
They anticipated that next town is at 15 km away. But even after travelling 20 km, they could not find traces of it. This suggests that their worry is because they were feeling that they lost their way.  
Ans: (b)
English Passage –3
A stout old lady was walking with her basket down the middle of a street in Petrograd to the great confusion of traffic and no small peril of herself. It was pointed out to her that the pavement was the place for foot-passengers, but she replied, “I am going to walk where I like. We have got liberty now.” It did not occur to the dear lady that if the liberty entitled the foot-passenger to walk down the middle of the road, it also entitled the taxi driver to drive on the pavement, and that the end of such liberty would be universal chaos. Everything would be getting in everybody else’s way and nobody would get anywhere. Individual liberty would have become social anarchy.
37. It was pointed out to the lady that she should walk on the pavement because she was
 (a) a pedestrian.
(b) carrying a basket.
(c) stout.
(d) an old lady.
Solution:
Pavement is for pedestrians. As she is walking, she is pointed to use pavement. 
Ans: (a)

38. The lady refused to move from the middle of the street because
 (a) she was not afraid of being killed.
(b) she felt that she is entitled to do whatever she liked.
(c) she did not like walking on the pavement.
(d) she was confused.
Solution:
The tone of the reply she gave suggests that she felt that she is entitled to do whatever she liked.
Option (a) and (c) cannot be considered as those were not exclusively mentioned and they cannot be implied.
Coming to option (d): Actually, it can be understood that, she was not confused but her walking in the middle of the road had confused the traffic. So option (d) is also wrong. 
Ans: (b)

39. The old lady failed to realize that
 (a) she was not really free.
(b) her liberty was not unlimited.
(c) she was an old person.
(d) roads are made for motor vehicles only.
Solution:
Option (c) is irrelevant.
Option (a) is not correct as it is an extreme sentence. She is free to do any work but there are limits in exercizing those works. 
Option (d) looks very particular, but most part of the passage suggests a general sense. 
Ans: (b)
Direction for the following two(2) items:
Read the following passage and answer the two items that follow Your answers to these questions should be based on the passage only.
Passage
Crude mineral oil comes out of the earth as a thick brown or black liquid with a strong smell. It is a complex mixture of many different substances, each with its own individual qualities. Most o them are combinations of Hydrogen and Carbon in varying proportions. Such hydrocarbons are also found in other forms such as Bitumen, Asphalt and natural gas. Mineral oil originates from the carcasses of tiny animals and plants that live in the sea. Over millions of years, these dead creatures form large deposits under the sea bed; and ocean currents cover them with a blanket of sand and silt. As this mineral hardens, it becomes sedimentary rock and effectively shut out the oxygen, so preventing the complete decomposition of the marine deposits underneath. The layers of sedimentary rock become thicker and heavier. Their pressure produces heat, which transforms the tiny carcasses in to crude oil in a process that is still going on today.
40. Mineral oil deposits under the sea do not get completely decomposed because they
 (a) are constantly washed by the ocean currents.
(b) become rock and prevent oxygen from entering them.
(c) contain a mixture of hydrogen and carbon.
(d) are carcasses of organisms lying in saline conditions.
Solution:
”As this mineral hardens, it becomes sedimentary rock and effectively shut out the oxygen, so preventing the complete decomposition of the marine deposits underneath.”  => as per this quote from the passage, we can choose option (b)
Ans: (b)

41. Sedimentary rock leads to the formation of oil deposits because
 (a) there are no saline conditions below it.
(b) it allows some dissolved oxygen to enter the dead organic matter below it.
(c) weight of overlying sediment layers causes the production of heat.
(d) it contains the substances that catalyze the chemical reactions required to change the dead organisms into oil.
Solution:
” The layers of sedimentary rock become thicker and heavier. Their pressure produces heat, which transforms the tiny carcasses in to crude oil in a process that is still going on today.”  => as per this quote from the passage, we can choose option (c)
Ans: (c)

42. Five people A,B,C,D and E are seated about a round table. Every chair is spaced equidistant from adjacent chairs.
(i) C is seated next to A
(ii) A is seated 2 seats from D
(iii) B is not seated next to A
Which of the following must be true?
(I)                 D is seated next to B
(II)               E is seated next to A
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
 (a) I only (b) II only (c) Both I and II (d) Neither I nor II
Solution:
Draw a circle and try out positions.
If I translate the circular positions in to linear, the following are the two possibilities:
CAEDB (or) ACBDE
In both the cases, D is placed next to B. And this is true for A and E (even though, it won’t look like that, it is evident if we translate CAEDB or ACBDE in to circular positions)
Ans: (c)
Direction for the following two(2) items:
Read the following passage and answer the two items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.
Passage
Ecological research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to the mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forests. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted affecting several extinction prone species of wild life. Habitat fragmentation is therefore considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant illegal mining is aggravating this threat. 
43. What is the central focus of the passage?
 (a) Illegal mining in forests
(b) Extinction of wild life
(c) Conservation of nature
(d) Disruption of habitat
Solution:
The essence of the passage is:
Due to some activities like mining, highways etc, there is disruption in landscapes and corridors. This is affecting several species of wild life.
The central theme may be “disruption of habitat”
Ans: (d)

44. What is the purpose of maintaining the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors?
                1. Preservation of biodiversity
                2. Management of mineral sources
                3. Grant of forest lands for human activities
 (a)  1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1,2 and 3
Solution:
Option 2 is out of the scope of the passage. Option 3 has a negative tinge where as the maintaining of the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors is for a good purpose. Option 1 only is correct.
Ans: (a)
Passage-3
Malnutrition most commonly occurs between the ages of six months and two years. This happens despite the child’s food requirements being less than that of an older child. Malnutrition is often attributed to poverty, but it has been found that even in households where adults eat adequate quantities of food, more than fifty percent of children-under-five do not consume enough food. The child’s dependence on someone else to feed him/her is primarily responsible for the malnutrition. Very often the mother is working and the responsibility of feeding the young child is left to an older sibling. It is therefore crucial to increase awareness regarding the child’s food needs and how to satisfy them.
45. According to the passage, malnutrition in children can be reduced
(a) if the children have regular intakes of food
(b) after they cross the age of five
(c) if the food needs of younger children are known
(d) if the responsibility of feeding younger children is given to adults
Solution:
It is no where mentioned that malnutrition can be reduced after age of five. So option (b) can be avoided.
Even if the children have regular intakes, it may not suffice. The quantity and quality of food may be more important. Option (a) can be avoided.
No where it is suggested that the responsibility of younger children shall be given to adults. So answer option (d) can be avoided.
 “It is therefore crucial to increase awareness regarding the child’s food needs and how to satisfy them” => this sentence of the passage hints at answer option (c).
Ans: (c)

46. According to the author, poverty is not the main cause of malnutrition, but the fact that
                1. taking care of younger ones is not a priority for working mothers.
                2. awareness of nutritional needs is not propagated by the public health authorities
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution:
Both the given options 1 and 2 are extreme and derogatory and are no where hinted in the passage.
 There is no mention about Public Health authorities in the passage and hence option (2) can be straight away rejected.
It is mentioned that “Very often the mother is working and the responsibility of feeding the young child is left to an older sibling” => This does not mean that “taking care of younger ones is not a priority for working mothers”. In this way it is an extreme statement and hence option(2) can also be avoided.
Ans: (d)

47. You are the head of your office. There are certain houses reserved for the allotment to the office staff and you have been given the direction to do so. A set of rules for the allotment of houses has been laid down by you and has been made public. Your personal secretary who is very close to you, comes to you and pleads that as his father is seriously ill, he should be given priority in allotment of a house. The office secretariat that examined the request as per the rules turns down the request and recommends the procedure to be followed according to the rules. You do not want to annoy your personal secretary. In such circumstances, what would you do?
(a) Call him over to your room and personally explain why the allotment cannot be done.
(b) Allot the house to him to win his loyalty.
(c) Agree with the office note to show that you are not biased and that you do not indulge in favouritism.
(d) Keep the file with you and not pass any orders.
Solution:
Option (d) can’t be selected as it shows indecisiveness.
Option (b) can’t be selected as it leads to totally against to the rules.
Option(c) suggests the straight-forward procedure. But as it is mentioned not to annoy the personal secretary, it is better to personally explain him, why can’t the allotment be made to him. This little personal attention is not wrong and it will help to clear the air.
Ans: (a)

48. While travelling in a Delhi-registered commercial taxi from Delhi to an adjacent city (another state), your taxi driver informs you that as he has no permit for running the taxi in that city, he will stop at its transport office and pay the prescribed fee of Rs forty for a day. While paying the fee at the counter you find that the transport clerk is taking an extra fifty rupees for which no receipt is being given. You are in a hurry for your meeting. In such circumstances, what would you do?
(a) Go up to the counter and ask the clerk to give back the money which he has illegally taken.
(b) Do not interfere at all as this is a matter between the taxi driver and the tax authorities.
(c) Take note of the incident and subsequently report the matter to the concerned authorities.
(d) Treat it as a normal affair and simply forget about it.
Solution:
Options (b) and (d) can’t be selected as it shows irresponsibility on part of a citizen.
Option (a) can’t be selected as it is mentioned that you are in hurry to attend a meeting and may not take risk of wasting time as it may lead to an argument etc.
Option(c) is suitable option.
Ans: (c)

49. A person lives in a far off village which is almost two hours by bus. The villagers neighbor is a very powerful landlord who is trying to occupy the poor villager’s land by force. You are the district magistrate and busy in a meeting called by a local minister. The villager has come all the way, by bus and by foot, to see you and give an application seeking protection from the powerful landlord. The villager keeps on waiting outside the meeting hall for an hour. You come out of the meeting and are rushing to another meeting. The villager follows you to submit his application. What would you do?
(a) Tell him to wait for another two hours till you come back from your next meeting.
(b) Tell him that the matter is actually to be dealt by a junior officer and that he should give the application to him.
(c) Call one of your senior subordinate officers and ask him to solve the villager’s problem.
(d) Quickly take the application from him, ask him a few relevant questions regarding his problem and then proceed to the meeting.
Solution:
 Direct interaction with the villager may be more soothing to him and hence options (b) and (c) are ruled out. Option (a) can also be avoided as it makes further inconvenience to the villager.
Ans: (d)

50. There is a shortage of sugar in your district where you are the district Magistrate. The government has ordered that only a maximum amount of 30 kg sugar is to be released for wedding celebrations. A son of your close friend is getting married and your friend requests you to release at least 50 kg sugar for his son’s wedding. He expresses annoyance when you tell him about the Government’s restrictions on this matter. He feels that since you are the district magistrate you can release any amount. You do not want to spoil your friendship with him. In such circumstances how would you deal with the situation?
(a) Release the extra amount of sugar which your friend has requested for.
(b) Refuse your friend the extra amount and strictly follow the rules.
(c) Show your friend the copy of the Government instructions and then persuade him to accept the lower amount as prescribed in the rules.
(d) Advise him to directly apply to the allotting authority and inform him that you do not interfere in this matter.
Solution:
This is similar to the question on “allotment of houses” (Q.47).
Option (a) is ruled out as it is against the rules.
Option (b) is a straight-forward approach but is ruled out as it is a harsh way to deal with as you do not want to spoil relationship with your friend. Option (d) also looks a bit harsh and indicates that you are running away from the problem.  Option (c) looks more appropriate.   
Ans: (c)

51. You are in-charge of implementing the Family Planning Programme in an area where there is a strong opposition to the present policy. You want to convince the residents of the need for keeping small families.  What would be the best way of communicating this message?
(a) By logically explaining to the residents the need for family planning to improve the health and living standards.
(b) By encouraging late marriages and proper spacing of children.
(c) By offering incentives for adopting family planning devices.
(d) By asking people who have been sterilized or are using contraceptives to directly talk to the residents.
Solution:
The point here is to convince the residents for keeping small families. Options (b) and (c) are not about the methods to convince but rather these are methods for implementation. Option (d) may be useful as a supporting method but not as a direct method for convincing.
Option (a) looks more suitable option. 
Ans: (a)

52. You are a teacher in a university and are setting a question paper on a particular subject. One of your colleagues whose son is preparing for the examination on that subject, comes to you and informs you that it is his son’s last chance to pass that examination and whether you could help him by indicating what questions are going to be in the examination. In the past your colleague has helped you in another matter. Your colleague informs you that his son will suffer from depression if he fails in the examination. In such circumstances, what would you do?
(a) In view of the help he had given you, extend your help to him.
(b) Regret that you cannot be of any help to him.
(c) Explain to your colleague that this would be violating the trust of the university authorities and you are not in a position to help him.
(d) Report the conduct of your colleague to the higher authorities.
Solution:
Option (a) is out of question as it is a violation of conduct rules. Option (b) is straight forward but little rude given the sensitivities involved and hence may be avoided.   
Option (c) looks more suitable option.
Option (d) is not the immediate solution given the sensitivities involved. It may be used only if you are very much compiled to commit a mistake. 
Ans: (c)

Passage
Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms since 1991 have led to growing linkages and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertainties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year with contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility.
The funding constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated , banks ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however remains robust, not withstanding a decline in capital to risk weighed assets ratio and a raise in nonperforming asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequancy levels remain above the regularity requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation and diversification of these financial systems, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater significance.
53. According to the passage, the financial markets in the emerging market economies including India had the adverse impact in recent years due to
      1. Weak global economic prospects
      2. Uncertainties in the international financial markets
      3.  Sovereign risk concerns in the Euro area.
      4. Bad monsoons and the resultant crop loss
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 & 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 2 & 3 only
(d) 2, 3 and 4
Solution:
 This is a straight forward question. The factors can be taken directly from lines 2 to 5 of 1stparagraph. Option (4) is out of scope of the para and all other options are mentioned.
Ans: (b)

54.  The Indian financial markets are effected by global changes mainly due to the
(a) Increased inflow of remittances from abroad
(b) Enormous increase in the foreign exchange reserves
(c) Growing global linkages and integration of the Indian financial markets
(d) Contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem
Solution:
 This is again a straight forward question.
“Sovereign risk concerns particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year with contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than-normal levels of volatility”=> this sentence of 1stpara hints at answer option (d) 
Ans: (d)

55.  According to the passage, in the Indian financial system, banks ability to withstand stress is critical to ensure overall financial stability because Indian financial system is
(a) controlled by the Government of India
(b) less integrated with banks
(c) controlled by Reserve Bank of India
(d)dominated by banks
Solution:
This is again a straight forward question.
“Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated , banks ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability”=> this sentence of 2nd para hints at answer option (d) 
Ans: (d)

56. Risk and liquidity management assumes more importance in the Indian banking system in future due to
      1. further globalization
      2. more consolidation and deregulation of the financial system
      3.  further diversification of the financial system
      4. more financial inclusion in the economy
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2  & 3
(b) 2, 3 & 4
(c) 1 & 2 only
(d) 3 & 4 only
Solution:
This is a straight forward question. The factors can be taken directly from lines 6 to 8 of 2ndparagraph. Option (4) is out of scope of the para and all other options are mentioned.
Ans: (a)

Passage-4
A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-form employment, storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. These are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risk can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially methods that cut across geographical regions.
Policies may aim at tackling agricultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specific policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single risk specific policy is sufficient to reduce risk and is without side effects, where as policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly.  Crop insurance as a policy measure to tackle agricultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries – because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability is the predominant cause of their income instability. 

57. The need for policy intervention to mitigate risks in agriculture is because
(a) farmers are extremely risk averse
(b)farmers do not know how to mitigate risks
(c) the methods adopted by farmers and existing risk sharing institutions are not adequate
(d)majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture
Solution:
This is a straight forward question.
“Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially methods that cut across geographical regions”=> these last two lines of 1st para hints at answer option (c) 
Ans: (c)

58. Which of the following observations emerge from the above passage?
(a) One can identify a single policy that can reduce risk without any side-effect.
(b)No single risk-specific policy is sufficient to reduce agricultural risk.
(c) Policies which affect risk indirectly can eliminate it.
(d)Government’s policy intervention can mitigate agricultural risk completely.
Solution:
 It’s again a straight forward one and the answer can be directly taken from 4th line of 2ndparagraph.
Ans: (b)

Passage-1
 The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry in to water courses. The simplest and most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry.  This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of the nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus – based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and cultural service associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as Mississippi and North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2  in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.  
59. According to the passage, why should the discharge agricultural slurry into watercourses be restricted?
        1. Losing nutrients in this way is not a good practice economically.
2. Water courses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry.
3. The discharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies.
 (a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1,2 and 3
Solution:
“The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry in to water courses. The simplest and most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry”=> These sentences from 1st paragraph hint that loosing the nutrients in this way is not a good economical practice. So option (1) can be considered.
Options (2) and (3) are evident from 2nd paragraph.
Ans: (d)

60. The passage refers to the conversion of “pollutant to fertilizer”. What is the pollutant and what is the fertilizer in this context?
(a) Decomposed organic component of slurry is pollutant and microorganisms in soil constitute fertilizer.
(b) Discharged agricultural slurry is pollutant and decomposed slurry in soil is fertilizer
(c) Sprayed slurry is pollutant and watercourse is fertilizer
(d) None of the above expressions is correct in this context
Solution:
Option (b) is easy to select.
Ans: (b)

61. According to the passage, what are the effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizer?
        1. Addition of pollutants to the soil and water.
2. Destruction of decomposer microorganisms in soil.
3. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies.
4. Creation of algal blooms.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1,3 and  4 only
(c) 2 and 4 only
(d) 1,2,3 and 4
Solution:
Option 2 ie., destruction of microorganisms is not mentioned anywhere in the passage whereas all other options seem to be taken from the passage.
Ans: (b)

62. What is/are the characteristics of a water body with cultural eutrophication?
        1. Loss of ecosystem services.
2. Loss of flora and fauna.
3. Loss of mineral nutrients.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1,2 and 3
Solution:
Options 1 and 2 seem to be the characteristics of ‘cultural eutrophication‘. Option 1 can be taken from para-2 and option 2 can be implied from para-3. Option 3 seems odd option in this context.
Ans: (b)

63. Consider the following diagrams:
x men, working at constant speed, do a certain job in y days. Which one of these diagrams shows the relation between x and y?

(a) diagram I
(b) diagram II
(c) diagram III
(d) diagram IV
Solution:
Logical Explanation:
Diagram I: Even if for zero x, there exists some y. This means, even if there is no men, there exist some working days, which is wrong.
Diagram II: If x is increased y is also increased here. This means if no.of men is increased then the no of working days increased, which is wrong.
Diagram III: This has two parts in it, a vertical line and a horizontal line. Vertical line suggests infinite working days for some number of workers, which is wrong. Horizontal line suggests, same working days even if the no of men is increased/decreased which is also wrong.
Diagram IV: This depicts the correct relation. When no.of men increases, then no.of days decreases and vice versa.
Mathematical Explanation:
Here x and y are inversely related. If x, the number of men increases, then, y, the number of days for completing the work decreases => x α (1/y) => xy = constant => this is an equation of a rectangular hyperbola. Diagram IV resembles a hyperbola and hence is the answer.
Ans: (d)

64. A cube has six numbers marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on its faces. Three views of the cube are shown below:

 (a)    2 and 3 (b) 6 and 1 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 and 1
Solution:
If we check the first two cubes, the common number 1 has numbers 4,6,2 and 3 on its four adjacent faces. So the remaining number 5 is on the opposite face of 1.                              à (1)
Check the 4th cube. Here we need to find two adjacent numbers of 5.
Method-I
From statement(1), in other way, we can say that, 2,3,4 and 6 are the adjacent numbers of 5.  So out of all, answer option (a) has correct combination.
Method-II
From the statement (1) itself, we can eliminate three answer options. Number 1 should not be an adjacent number of 5 because it is the opposite number of 5 (from statement (1)) . So answer options (b),(c) and (d) can be eliminated as each of these options have 1 as one of its two numbers.   
Ans: (a)

Direction for the following 5 (five) items:
Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:
65. How many Physics professors belong to the age group 35 - 44?
(a) 18     (b) 16    (c) 14     (d) 12
Solution:
From fig-2, we can say that 40% of Physics professors belong to the age group 35-44. From fig-1, we can find that there are 32 male and 8 female Physics professors. In total there are 40 Physics professors, out of which 40% belong to 35-44 age group.
40% 0f 40 = 16
Ans: (b)

66. Which one of the following disciplines has the highest ratio of males to females?
(a) Physics           (b) Mathematics              (c) Chemistry     (d) Economics
Solution:
Check answer options one by one for ratio of males to females.
Physics: Male:Female = 32:8 = 4:1
Mathematics: Male:Female = 28:8 = 7:2 = 3.5:1
Chemistry: Male:Female = 16:22 < 1 and hence can be eliminated (as it is asked for highest ratio)
Economics: Male:Female = 24:8 = 3:1
Ans: (a)

67. What percentage of all Psychology professors are females?
(a) 40%                                 (b) 50%                 (c) 60%                                 (d) 70%
Solution:
There are 4 male and 6 female Psychology professors. In total there are 10 Psychology professors.
There are 6 female professors out of all Psychology professors => 6/10 *100 = 60%
Ans: (c)

68. If the number of female Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34 equals 25% of all the Physics professors in that age group, then what is the number of male Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34?
(a)9        (b) 6       (c) 3       (d) 2
Solution:
From fig-2, we can see that 30% of Physics professors belong to the age group 25-34. From fig-1, we can find that there are 32 male and 8 female Physics professors. In total there are 40 Physics professors, out of which 30% belong to 25-34 age group.
30% of 40 = 12. So there are 12 Physics professors in the age group 25-34              à (1)
It is given that, the number of female Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34 equals 25% of all the Physics professors in that age group => 25% of 12 = 3 are female professors in that age group à (2)
From (1) and (2), we can say that 12-3=9 male professors belong to 25-34 age group.
Ans: (a)

69. If the Psychology professors in the University constitute 2% of all the professors in the University, then what is the number of professors in the University?
(a) 400  (b) 500 (c) 600   (d) 700
Solution:
From fig-1, we can find that there are 4+6=10 Psychology professors. It is given that this constitutes 2% of all professors.
If 2% is 10, then what is 100% => 100/2 * 10 = 500
Ans: (b)

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