Ancient Indian Cities
- The Great Granary measuring 1 69 ft x 3 5 feet is the largest and the most remarkable structure found at Harappa.
- So far 891 seals have been recovered from Harappa, and that is 40% of the total number of seals belonging to Indus Valley Civilization that have been found.
- A red sandstone naked male torso has been found, which shows traces of Jainism Between the granary and the citadel, have also been found a series of circular platforms, probably for the pounding of grain
- At a lower level below the granary, platforms and the citadel were crowded one-room dwellings, which suggest slave habitats.
- In Sindhi language, the word Mohenjodaro means mound of the dead’.
- It is the largest of all Indus cities
- The Great Bath is the most important public place, measuring 39 feet (length) X 23 feet (breadth) X 8 feet (depth). Located at the center of the citadel, it is remarkable for beautiful brickwork Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. It must have served as a ritual-bathing site
- Remains have been found of an oblong multi-pillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building, which must have served administrative purposes.
- Most of Mohenjodaro houses are built of kiln-fired brick
- The major streets are 33 feet wide and run north-south, intersecting subordinate ones, running east-west at right angles.
- The evidence of Indian ships (figured on a seal) and a piece of woven cloth has been discovered from here
- There is a large granary consisting of podium of square blocks of burnt-bricks with a wooden superstructure
- Parallel rows of two-roomed cottages found The workmen or poor sections Of the society perhaps used these cottages.
- Abronzedancinggirl,steatitestatueof a priest and a seal bearing Pashupati have been found here
- It is important to remember that Mohenjodaro shows nine levels of occupation towering over 300 feet above the present flood plain
- Excavation reveals that the city was flooded More than seven times
- Has pre-Harappan as well as Harappan cultural phases.
- Less developed compared to Mohenjodaro
- There is evidence of mud-brick fortification
- Pre-Harappan phase here shows that the fields were ploughed unlike the Harappan period.
- Archaeologists have discovered two platforms (within the citadel) with fire altars suggesting the practice of cult sacrifice
- The existence of wheel conveyance is proved by a cartwheel having a single hub
- Only Indus city without a citadel.
- Existence of Pre-Harappan as well as Harappan cultural phase
- A small pot was discovered here, which was probably an ink pot.
- Excavations reveal that people of Chanhudaro were expert craftsmen. Archaeologists have discovered here metalworkers’, shell-ornament makers’ and bead-makers’ shops
- The city was twice destroyed by inundations.Here more extensive but indirect evidenceof super-imposition of a barbarian lifestyle is seen Banwali
- Like Kalibangan, Amri, Kot Diji and Harappa, Banwali also saw two cultural phases - pre-Harappan and Harappan.
- Human and animal figures, clay bangles and statue of mother Goddess found here.
- Here we find large quantity of barely, sesamum and mustard.
- Excavations reveal a citadel and a lower town, both of which were fortified.
- It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been round.
- Pre-Harappan and Harappan phases found.
- According to excavations, the city was probably destroyed due to fire
- Wheel made painted pottery, traces of a defensive wall and well-aligned streets, knowledge of metallurgy, artistic toys etc.
- Five figurines of Mother Goddess discovered
- The excavations have yielded five-fold sequence of cultures — Harappan, PGW, NBP, Kushana-Gupta and Medieval.
- The evidence of burying a dog below the human burial is very interesting
- One example of rectangular mudbrick ‘chamber was noticed.
- It is the latest and one of the two largest Harappan settlements in India, the other being Rakhigarhi in Haryana
- The other Harappan towns were divided into two parts — Citadel and the Lower Town, but Dholavira was divided into three principal divisions, two of which were strongly protected by rectangular fortifications.
- There are two inner enclosures — the first one hemmed in the citadel (which probably housed the highest authority)and the second one protected the middle town (meant for the close relatives of the rulers and other
- officials). The existence of this middle town, apart from the lower town, is the real exclusive feature of this city.
- Only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people It was surrounded by a massive brick wall, probably as flood protection.
- Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC) The only other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad.
- Fire altars, indicating the probable existence of a fire cult, have been found
- A doubtful terracotta figurine of horse is found here