Sunday, February 15, 2015

Non-cooperation- Khilafat Movement

Non-cooperation- Khilafat Movement


Background and Causes:
Mahatma Gandhi led his non-violent nationalist movement “satyagraha”, as a protest against government repression such as theRowlatt Act of 1919, and the Jalian Wallah Bagh Massacre of April 1919. To enlist Muslim support in his movement, Gandhi supported the Khilafat cause and became a member of the Central Khilafat Committee.
At the Nagpur Session (1920) of the Indian national congress (INC) Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj (Self-Government) with the Khilafat demands and adopted the non-cooperation plan to attain the twin objectives. So the non-cooperation movement – Khilafat movement began in January 1921 and various social groups became part of this movement with different and varying aspirations of Mahatma Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
It Began in January 1921 and ended in February 1922 with the chauri chaura incident.
What was the aim of Non-cooperation movement?
It aimed to resist British occupation of India through non-violent means.
Who all were the participants?
Various social groups participated in the movement with its own aspiration and views.  Students, teachers, lawyers, headmasters, traders, merchants etc. in towns and Peasants and tribals in the villages came together with their own views of swaraj.
What were the activities involved in Non-cooperation Movement?
Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth bunt. Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods.
Students left government schools and colleges, teachers and head masters resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. Council elections were boycotted in provinces.
 In the countryside the struggles of peasants and tribals came under the label of non co-operation movement.
In Awadh, peasants led by Baba Ramachandra were struggling for reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, social boycott of oppressive landlords.
By October 1920, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramachandra and few others.
When the non cooperation movement began, the peasant movement developed under its label but the movement was somewhat violent – houses of merchants and landlords were attacked, bazaars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over.
Tribal peasants had somewhat other views on the idea of swaraj. Tribal peasants were prohibited from entering forest areas which affected their livelihood.
When the government began forcing them to do begar for road building, the tribal peasants in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradhesh revolted under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju who claimed to have a variety of supernatural powers. Raju talked of the greatness of Gandhi and persuaded people to wear khadhi and give up drinking.  But he believed India could be liberated only through violence. They attacked police stations and attempted to kill British officials. He Carried on guerilla warfare. Raju was captured and executed in 1924.
Why was Non-cooperation movement ended?
 Chauri Chaura is a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, known most for an event in February 1922 during the British Raj when a police station) was set on fire by a mob of angry citizens, killing 23 policemen inside. Due to this incident mahatma Gandhi called a halt to the non-cooperation movement.

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